Israel is bounded to the north by Lebanon, to the northeast by Syria, to the east and southeast by Jordan, to the southwest by Egypt, and to the west by the Mediterranean Sea. The total area is 7,992 square miles (20,700 square kilometers) excluding East Jerusalem and other territories occupied in the 1967 war.

Israel covers an area slightly smaller than New Jersey. The climate is temperate with hot and dry conditions in the southern and eastern desert areas. Israel's terrain consists of the Negev desert in the south, low coastal plains, central mountains, and the Jordan Rift Valley. Natural resources include copper, phosphates, and crude oil. Limited freshwater resources and arable land are the country's largest environmental concerns.

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